With the continuous development of the social economy, vigorously developing conservation-oriented industries and realizing the transformation of the economic structure have become the new tasks for the current economic development. The five major development concepts for innovation, coordination, greenness, openness, and sharing established by the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee are: The development of the packaging industry has provided development ideas, and at the same time, the implementation of the “Internet Plus” initiative has shifted from the crude development model of the past to the direction of individuation and quality. However, compared with the developed countries, the total output value of the printing industry in China remains Very low, based on the society's new requirements for the printing industry, it requires that the printing technology should continuously carry out technological innovations to meet the needs of social development.
Printing (Printing, Graphic Arts, and Graphic Communications) is a technique for copying manuscripts in bulk by transferring texts, drawings, photographs, and other manuscripts to the surface of paper, fabrics, leather, etc. . In a simple sense, printing is a process technology that uses printing plates or other means to transfer graphic information on a document onto a substrate. It can also be understood as using an analog or digital image carrier to apply a coloring agent/colorant (such as an ink). ) Transfer process to the substrate.
Printing technology has a long history in China. It represents the fine culture of the Chinese nation and is the crystallization of human wisdom. The earliest existing documents and the earliest Chinese engraving and printing objects were in the year 600 AD, the early days of the Tang Dynasty. With the development of economy, the application of printing technology in production practice is relatively extensive. It can be said that all industries and industries are inseparable from printing. Generally, printing technologies mainly include: lithography, letterpress printing (including flexographic process), and gravure printing. The outcome of the coexistence of screen printing and digital printing. In general, the offset printing process has a long history in China's printing history, and it is widely used due to its low production cost. However, it has the disadvantage of high energy consumption and is not conducive to China's current vigorous development of economic development of resource-saving resources. Claim. Flexible printing combines the advantages of many printing processes. Flexible printing has the characteristics of low printing pressure and clear marking during printing, especially the wideness of printing objects. It not only adapts to high-quality cardboard, but also adapts to quality. Poor cardboard, but its plate is more expensive, so the production cost is relatively high, especially not suitable for small batch production; gravure printing process has a strong sense of printing, so during the printing process printing ink is easy to dry, Therefore, the gravure printing process is suitable for home decoration products, for example for field printing and the like. Based on this printing technology, printing color difference is not easy to occur, so it is suitable for a large number of printing products; the screen printing process, as its name implies, is a screen structure with a squeegee. The role of the liquid ink through the screen plate surface layout of the screen, the infiltration and printing on the product, resulting in the formation of printed graphics, its greatest feature is the thick printing ink layer, suitable for printing a large area of the field or Line layout products, however, are not as accurate as offset, gravure, or flexo. Gravure is a printing process with the highest printing rate of the printing plate. Its printing speed is also faster, and the precision of product reproduction is higher. Digital printing is the product of the development of computer technology and is the main development trend of current printing technology. Digital printing can To meet the needs of personalized printing business, its main purpose is to print products directly to various materials through computers. The application of digital printing technology is a breakthrough for traditional printing technology, which changes the backward technology of traditional printing and satisfies " Internet +" action implementation requirements. In particular, the development of cloud technology has led to the development of "cloud" printing technology. It can be said that a large number of personalized printing needs have promoted the application of cloud printing technology. Compared with traditional printing methods, cloud printing can be customized, ordered at any time, and delivered quickly. As a result of adopting network technology to optimize production processes and reduce production costs, it can effectively save paper costs for customers.
2 Development Status of Printing Technology
After many years of development, China's printing technology has developed innovatively. From the charts of the world's top 12 printing markets from 2006 to 2011, China has replaced Germany and the United Kingdom as the third largest printing market. However, with the development of technological innovation and changes, the achievements made in the development of China's printing technology have a big gap compared with foreign advanced countries:
2.1 Achievements Made in China's Printing Technology
The historical development of the printing industry in our country is relatively long. Therefore, our country's printing technology is relatively mature, and our country's printing technology has achieved good results: First, our country's digital printing technology is increasingly perfect. Digital printing is actually a new printing technology that directly prints on the computer through a printing device. With the continuous development and progress of digital technology, digital printing has evolved from a simple color printer to a digital dedicated printing press. The material also changes from the special printing paper to the direction of the package printing material. The printing format develops from the traditional small format to the large format, so as to avoid the errors between the different processes of proofing and printing, and to make the packaging printing technology level also Get better improvement. For example, the more widely used 3D printing technology is now applied (see Fig. 1); secondly, the performance of printing equipment is increasingly perfect. Taking semi-automated and automated equipment as an example, we developed a digital creasing machine in 2009. In the next two years, it has sold no more than 10 units in the domestic market. In 2011, it sold more than 50 units and sold it. The volume is rapidly increasing at a rate of doubling every year; finally, the technology of printing technology integration is applied. D ICO w eb In-machine commercial rotary press features: Continuous printing without the need for a single plate image imaging: Modular design, can be diversified: Simple replacement of roller cover and roller. It can print a series of different sizes and products Advantages: The concept of operation is simple and requires very little human hands. Integrated digital prepress process.
2.2 The Defects in China's Printing Technology
(1) China's printing technology did not achieve greenization. Taking gravure printing as an example, gravure printing accounts for a dominant position in packaging printing. Because of its wide range of printing materials, high quality of printed materials, and high-tech content, it is widely used in the packaging and printing of food, medicine, tobacco, wine and other industries. A number of special technologies are combined and widely used in the printing of security securities, banknotes, stamps, and other valuable securities. Products are inseparable from the lives of ordinary people. Gravure printing shows a strong vitality. However, the discharge of gravure printed VOCs seriously pollutes the environment, and it requires water from the source of printing inks and adhesives, the production and manufacture of plates, the process control in printing production, the transformation of gravure printing equipment, and the integration of recovery devices in the end treatment. Ask technical questions and actively propose solutions.
(2) The product performance structure is irrational. Looking at the overall status quo of China's printing equipment, there are currently problems of lack of high-end equipment and excess equipment at the low end. This situation can only lead to unreasonable results in the printing industry and seriously affect the healthy development of the printing industry. (3) The application level of hybrid printing technology is not high. Hybrid printing technology is one of the trends in the future development of printing technology. The hybrid printing technology in foreign advanced countries is already very mature, but our country's hybrid printing technology is not yet mature, especially the lack of a complete digital printing production chain. In addition, the relevant personnel in China are also insufficient. The shortage of talent will directly lead to a greater impact on the development of printing companies. However, the talents cultivated in the current vocational colleges cannot meet such needs. Therefore, it is necessary for the state, higher vocational colleges, and enterprises to jointly establish a sharing mechanism to meet the requirements of qualified personnel in this area.
3 Development Trend of China's Printing Technology
Based on the rapid development of China's Internet technology and the requirements of the “Thirteenth Five-Year” development plan for the printing and packaging industry, combined with the current development status of domestic and foreign printing technologies, the development trend of China's printing technology mainly presents the following trends:
3.1 highly automated
Automation is a concrete embodiment of the integration of the “Internet+” strategy. With the development of computer technology, many new types of printing equipment already have automated processing technologies such as computerized automatic technology control, shaftless technology, and fiber optic transmission technology. Due to the problem of the material of the printing paper principle, the traditional printing company's workshop caused the printing work to be affected due to the environmental dampness factors. Therefore, the application of the printing room dehumidifier has a high application value and realizes the temperature of the plant. Automatic control, when the plant humidity and temperature exceeds the predetermined temperature, the device will automatically stop, the same when the actual humidity is lower than the predetermined device, the device will automatically boot, to achieve automatic control of the printing process . Due to the application of this equipment, the economic benefits and social benefits of printing companies have been greatly improved.
The high-end technology of printing technology has led to the linkage of the workflow of printing equipment. Linkage is mainly based on modular and streamlined operation modes. In particular, the development of digital technology has led to the revamping of printing technology and achieved the integration of prepress, printing and postpress. For example, in order to solve the need for connection work in the later stage of digital printing, all specifications of MBO digital can be smoothly expressed. The land is directly integrated into the same production process, and can be directly connected to digital printing equipment or connected to an off-line unit for off-line production. The products are more in line with the actual needs of customers and can provide customers with innovative and efficient solutions.
Intelligentization is one of the major trends in the development of printing technology, and is also the main symbol of the development of modern digital technology. Intelligence is based on the development of Internet technology. It breaks the traditional manual operation mode and realizes that there is no need for platemaking. Can print job needs. However, we also need to see the disadvantages of the development of China's printing intelligent technology, that is, food smart packaging needs to be developed, and the results will directly affect the safety of food.
3.4 Green Environment
Adhere to green development. Green environmental protection is one of the priorities of the printing industry during the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period. We must strive to achieve the green certification standards advocated by the state in the production process, and work hard to promote energy conservation and consumption reduction in the printing industry and develop a green and environmentally friendly economy. Promote the development of a low-carbon cycle, comprehensively save and rationally use resources, and vigorously develop recycling and comprehensive utilization of waste gas, waste water, and printed solid waste. The green development trend of printing technology mainly needs to be done in the following two aspects: First, the concept of environmental protection is presented in the printing design. Many printing companies strengthen external things while designing and ignore the concept of environmental protection, resulting in excessive pollution. For this reason, the current printing design embodies the concept of environmental protection. In designing ideas, it presents the characteristics of meeting customer needs and reducing environmental pollution. Second, it is reflected in the printing process. We know that the traditional factor process is easy to produce various forms. Waste liquids, the pollution of these waste fluids to the environment is enormous, so based on the requirements of environmental protection tasks, green technologies are mainly reflected in one aspect is to increase the recycling of waste fluids, on the other hand, to enhance technological innovation and actively take Advanced accessories, producing more advanced ink, to achieve the environmental protection of ink structure.
With the implementation of China’s “Internet Plus” initiative, printing technology has promoted the rapid development of printing technology through integration with Internet technology. Therefore, under the background of China’s economic restructuring and the construction of energy-saving industries, how to realize printing technology and modern technology The combination of China's existing traditional printing basic conditions, the realization of a more reasonable digital printing system and the creation of greater benefits for enterprises are issues that we must pay attention to and must solve. This requires each and every practitioner to contribute their own energy and devote themselves to the development of more efficient and high-quality printing technologies, which will truly make China a powerful printing country.